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Chapter 1 What Is Anthropology? 第一章 什麼是人類學?
by 陳鈺婷 2012-03-06 20:44:55, 回應(2), 人氣(1609)

Chapter Objectives  本章目標

  1. Understand what it means that anthropology is the holistic and comparative study of humanity.
  2. Know what distinguishes ethnography and ethnology.
  3. Be able to identify and distinguish between the four subfields of anthropology.
  4. Know what applied anthropology is and understand its relationship to academic anthropology.
  5. Understand why anthropology is considered a social science and the role that hypothesis testing plays in structuring anthropological research and explanation.

  1. 明白這意味著什麼,人類學是人類的整體和比較研究。
  2. 知道什麼區別人種學,民族學。
  3. 能夠識別和區分人類學的四個分支領域。
  4. 知道什麼應用人類學是了解其學術人類學的關係。
  5. 了解為什麼人類學被認為是社會科學和假設檢驗在結構人類學的研究和解釋方面的作用。


Chapter Outline  本章大綱 

1. Human Diversity  人類的多樣性
Adaptation, Variation, and Change  適應,變異和變化
2. General Anthropology  普通人類學
Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology  文化的力量塑造人類生物學
3. The Subdisciplines of Anthropology  人類學的分支學科
Cultural Anthropology   文化人類學 
Archaeological Anthropology   考古人類學 
Biological, or Physical, Anthropology   生物人類學或體質人類學 
Linguistic Anthropology  語言人類學
4. Anthropology and Other Academic Fields   人類學和其他學術領域
Cultural Anthropology and Sociology   文化人類學和社會學 
Anthropology and Psychology  人類學和心理學
5. Applied Anthropology   應用人類學 
6. The Scientific Method  
科學方法
Theories, Associations, and Explanations   理論,關聯性和解釋  
When Multiple Variables Predict  多變項分析
回應(2)
Audio Glossary

Anthropology (15.0K)  人類學

Archaeology (12.0K)  考古學

Bronislaw Malinowski (17.0K)  馬林諾夫斯基

Enculturation (15.0K)  教化

Ethnography (10.0K)  民族志

Ethnology (10.0K)  民族學

Franz Boas (13.0K)  博厄斯

Homo sapiens (11.0K)  智人

Sigmund Freud (10.0K)  弗洛伊德

Trobriand Islands (13.0K)  特羅布里恩群島





Key Terms  名詞解釋

anthropology
人類學   
The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
人類物種的研究和其直系祖先。
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applied anthropology
應用人類學         運用人類學的資料觀點理論及方法以找出,評估與解決現代的社會問題

archaeological anthropology
考古人類學   
The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture's material remains.
透過各種物質遺留 對於人類行為的研究


asssociation
關聯性               在兩個或更多變項間一套經觀察而得出的關係。               
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biocultural
生物文化觀點 

biological anthropology
生物人類學   
結合生物與文化觀點,來探討某個特定問題。
 
The study of human biological variation in time and space; includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology.
人體生物變異的研究在時間和空間,包括進化,遺傳學,成長和發展,和靈長類。
cultural anthropology
文化人類學 
The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
對於人類社會與文化所做的比較性的描述,分析,解釋,說明社會和跨文化的研究 
culture
文化   
Distinctly human; transmitted through learning; traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs.
透過學習而傳承的一些傳統與風俗習慣  

ethnography
民族誌   
Field work in a particular culture.
對於一個特定文化場景所做的田野工作。

ethnology
民族學   
Cross-cultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, of society, and of culture.
對社會文化的相似性與相異性所做的研究。
food production
食物生產   
Cultivation of plants and domestication (stockbreeding) of animals; first developed 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
栽培植物和馴養動物(畜牧業)的經濟體系;第一個開發的10000至12000年前。
general anthropology
普通人類學   
The field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology.
作為一個整體人類學領域,包括文化,考古,生物,語言人類學。
holistic
全貌觀  
Interested in the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
涵蓋在整個人類生存條件:過去,現在和將來,生物,社會,語言和文化感興趣。
linguistic anthropology
語言人類學   
The descriptive, comparative, and historical study of language and of linguistic similarities and differences in time, space, and society.
語言和語言的相似性和差異在時間,空間和社會的描述,比較和歷史的研究。 
physical anthropology
體質人類學   
See biological anthropology.
生物人類學 。 
science
科學   
A systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment, observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explanations of phenomena, with reference to the material and physical world.
一個研究領域,嘗試對物質與自然世界現象產生可靠的解釋。 
sociolinguistics
社會語言學 
Investigates relationships between social and linguistic variations.
調查研究社會和語言的變化之間的關係。 
theory
理論   
erstand why (something exists); theories suggest patterns, connections, and relationships that may be confirmed by new research.
由一些概念所構成的一個組合,它被論述出來以解釋某些事情。