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(2011-04-07) 西洋音樂史(一) 第3講
by 饒惠雯 2011-04-07 14:08:40, Reply(1), Views(2390)
         西洋音樂史(一)                     3                        學號:95110738  
 
 
 

視覺藝術與建築

III.Renaissance Sculpture,Painting,and Architecture

    Classical models of beauty

* Nude statues based on Greek ideals (see HWM Figure 7.1) depicted the beauty of the human figure,as opposed to human shame in medieval art.

* Classical Greek and Roman styles were use to portray Christian themes.

*Musicians consulted Greek theoretical treatises for ideas on how to create classical beauty in music.
 

文藝復興時在雕刻,繪畫,建築上西洋古典時期藝術環境密切.西洋希臘羅馬之下所崇尚美學復興再生起來.希臘人崇尚人體裸體美學雕像文藝復興的雕刻不再表現聖人與天使,人像看來也更有生氣十五世紀的青銅裸体「大衛像」,是第一個獨立於建築外的雕刻作品。這是中世紀不被尊崇的因當時是令人感到羞的而在文藝復興又把希臘美學又復興起來義大利15世紀雕刻家把人體美 充分表達出來,但在音樂方面希臘時沒被留下來,因為當時皆以口耳相傳沒文憲記載,所以沒被復興出來.

 

寫實的表達

    Realistic depictions in painting

l      Perspective,a method of showing three dimensions on a flat surface by orienting objects on a sing point with Vanishing lines toward it, made more-realistic images possible.

l      Chiaroscuro,naturalistic treatment of light and shade HWM Figure7.3 uses perspective and light to create a morerealistic image than the medieval image in HWM Figur7.2
 
繪畫`雕刻擬真寫實文藝復興時在平面繪畫上有三度空間的感覺ex:義大利畫家理想的城市中可看出視覺凝聚點,一點透視法不久前14世紀畫家在壁畫中透視手法當時還不存.在回覆希羅寫真表現有別於歌德時大量複雜雕是不同的.
 
 
    Clarity and clean lines are the newarchitectural style, the opposite of the ornate decoration of the Gothic style.
 
文藝復興的作品思想主張個性解放,反對中世紀的禁慾主義和宗教觀;肯定「人」是現世生活的創造者和享受者,要求文學藝術表現人的思想感情,擺脫教會對人們思想的束縛;肯定人權,反對神權,屏棄作為神學和經院哲學基礎的一切權威和傳統教條;提倡個性自由,因此在歷史發展上起了很大的進步作用。
 

    Interest in individuals開始對個人的重視

l      Patrons commissioned paintings to memorialize themselves.
 
開始對人的重視貴族與中產階級藝術贊助者和畫家們皆未畫自己畫肖像以致於平凡的人因化而被流傳下來
 
l      Minor figures in Painted were painted in detail.
 

中世紀大多化神為主而非畫人物為素材所以人物在中世紀並不受重視的.

 

 

    Musical parallels
 

l      音域的擴張,高低音的對比與較豐富的織體

l      較親溪的音樂結構 through 終止與風格的對比

l      Focusing on a single vanishing point in perspective.

      調性中心,在繪畫上用到一點透視的手法個人主義的張顯.
 

l      Interest in individuals is reflected in 獨特的個人風格與紀念性的作品出現.

 

 

IV.The Musical Renaissance (contd.)

*Noblewomen and Women in convents received some musical instyuction.

*Instrumentalists trained in the apprentice system.
 
chapels宮廷樂師團方面開始為貴族娛樂演奏,所以文藝復興樂師不只是在教堂上演奏了.19世紀前半音樂教育方面詩教授演唱與音樂理論很多音樂家都出致於教堂,主要發展中心在巴黎Cambrai Bruges 16世紀開始發展到義大利羅馬威尼斯
 
Patronage for music. 音樂的贊助者
 
*競相爭取最好的作曲家與演奏家消解了地區的差異性.
 
* Court musicians in Italy came form France, Flanders, and the Netherlands(Franco-Flemish).
 
音樂從義大利到法國,佛蘭德消解了區域性的關係.
 
* English,French,and Italian styles merged into one international style in the fifteeth century (see HWM chapter 8).
 

英國,法國, 義大利風格在15世紀溶解成國際語言.

 

* without access to examples from ancient Greecc,”the arranging of ,”I,e., counterpoint ,

*His rules for counterpoint including rules for the treatment of dissonance,including suspensions.
 
音樂史上重要的評論家對美學,音樂上的評論有說服大家認同的能力.
 

3.Gioseffo Zarlino’s Le istitutioni harmoniche (the Harmonic Foundations,1558) synthesizes

 the rules for counter-point as developed after Tinctoris.
 

音樂美學理論音樂理論Tinctoris 複調音樂,這新的文藝復興之後很重要,寫出對位法不和諧與合諧的原則.Zarlino’s和聲原則又提昇了Tinctoris更完善的表達.

單音聖歌做基底,在往上加聲部.
 

*所有聲部的均等by the second half of the fifteeth century.

* Composers stopped basing works on the cantus-tenor relation ship and began 所有聲部同時寫作All voices simultaneously.
 
15世紀起改掉只寫tenor 每個聲部皆有不同地位.
 

*Two textures emerged分為兩個織體:模仿對位imitative counterpoint & 主調音樂織體homophony.

 

Imitative counterpoint 模仿對位

*voices echo each other,repeating a motive phrase.

不同的聲部皆反覆之前動機或樂句回應
 

*Repetitions are usually a fourth ,fifth,or octave away.

不反覆動機但每聲部都已4.5.8 不同部模仿對位

 

Homophony主調音樂織體   

*所有聲部以同等節奏一起進行.

*低音部以和諧音伴奏高音部.

 

Josquin: Ave Maria

聽→Ave vera virginitas

 

*By ca.1500,Composersitional devices to convey the feeling of the text.
 
*Greek descriptions of the qualities of the modes inspired composers to connect modes with emotional effects.
 
15世紀作曲設定歌詞用
 
 
 

Chromaticism, inspired by the chromatic genus of ancient Greek music.

 

 

 

Music printing and distribution (pages 164-65)

*Printing from movable type began around 1450 for text and in the 1470s for chant notation.

*Petrucci 1501

*Attaingant
 

音樂的印刷15世紀中期

用活字的印刷15世紀晚期已用在音樂上

單版印刷也很成功,有傳播上的重要性.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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